software noticed that many people used the same word many times within
their essay. This is called 'redundancy
and is a bad thing in English writing.
The reason is that it may confuse the reader. They will wonder
why you are giving more information
than you need to
. They may think that you are talking about a new thing
and not the thing you
were talking about before. The reader would say to you: Huh? You already
Of course, when speaking, redundancy is not so much of a
problem, but when writing an essay try to avoid using the same word for
the same thing. You need to be
Using a pronoun ( he, she, it, they...), or a substitute word or
phrase ( one, someone who ( v ), etc ) is the easiest way, but
sometimes you can use a thesaurus
to find a synonym ( a word of almost the same meaning ), however, you
must be careful not to
use a word that you don't know. The meaning is probably different than
the one that you want.
Stick to easy words, or think of a phrase that says nearly the
same thing! Look at my example of different ways to say 'teacher'
someone who teaches
someone teaching as a profession
someone helping people to learn something
someone who studies
someone learning something
someone studying a subject
someone taking a class
The next essay will be about leaders
You must compare being a leader
with being just a
member of something
. Before you come to class, please download
the sheet here
and think of different ways
to say these things. Please bring this sheet to class.
Use a specific example, or a more general term:
Bird flu virus was found at a farm
in northern Kyoto. The illness
is not dangerous to humans, but has many people worried.
Use pronouns (like 'them
or substitute words (like 'one'
Cellphones are very popular in Japan. Almost every
adult has one. Most students also own one of these devices. My students put them in
their school bags during class, but then take them out at lunchtime to check
Now, read my natto essay
again. I have changed some of the words to avoid using the same ones
Words that refer to 'Natto'
Red = Words
that refer to " a person who ate Natto "
I really hate Natto.
First of all, these fermented
smell terrible. The first time I smelled it
was a stinky foot. Even now if I catch a whiff of it
, I think
must be rotten like spoiled meat
or a dead animal.
Secondly, the stuff
slimy and sticky when you
up, seeming something
like moldy leftovers that have
the back of the refrigerator at a single man's apartment for over a
year. Although it
is considered a delicacy, It
look like something
safe to put in your mouth!
and sticks to everything it
touches. For this reason it
spills on the floor or leaves a hard-to-clean residue on the fingers
and face of the
who eats it
then goes around all day with the substance
on his or her hands
and gives off a terrible odor.
People around the unknowing culprit
like their family, get
angry because of the smell.
For these reasons, I believe Natto
is the worst food
on the planet
should be banned from stores and made illegal to produce.
Criterion has a problem. It would now tell me that I have used 'it'
redundantly. Let's just ignore this!